E- guard (Innovative Low Cost Initiative on Solid Waste Management)
Introduction / Background:
Solid waste is the very concerning issue of Pakistan like rest of the world. Solid waste is cause of water pollution, methane gases and many diseases among the masses. In Pakistan situation is very worse where already the municipalities have not the required resources to manage sold waste. The available resources are not used properly like half of the staff recruited by municipalities for the purpose to manage solid waste not performs their duties; the transport is not being utilized properly and getting waste.
In Pakistan line departments responsible to manage solid waste focus not on primary but do the secondary collection and are unable to manage the dumped waste. The dumping places for small towns especially are rivers and stream banks. The households are producing waste and they are totally unaware of segregating and placing the waste at proper places. Many households throw their household solid waste in any vacant plots, ponds or in street near their houses. The house, industries and others throw the solid waste in near rivers and streams directly. In household solid waste there is 60% green waste and 25% recycled waste like plastic, iron, paper and others but it is dumped after secondary collection. One person in Pakistan produces half kilogram solid waste and the towns with population of 50 thousands individuals produces such a huge quantity of waste but has not resources to manage it.
Akhter Hameed Khan Memorial Trust has initiated a low cost and self sustained program namely “e- guard” that has been implemented in different cities and towns of Pakistan. Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Mangora, Mansehara, Gilgit, Islamabad Capital territory and Muzafferabad (Azad Kashmir) is its outreach. This model facilitate the line department in primary collection and segregation of household solid waste. The segregation of household solid waste decreases the quantity of dumping material. Haryali center that is another component of the program produces organic fertilizer by green waste applying EM technology.
e-guard Implementation Strategy/ Tools
1-Baseline Survey and Study:
Baseline survey is conducted in the targeted area in which different stakeholders including scavengers, sweepers, TMA representatives, households and others are interviewed to assess and analyze existing facilities of solid waste management in the area. This study assess the capacities of the municipalities.
All types of stakeholders are part of the district forum including District Coordination Officers (DCOs), Tehsil Municipal Administration Authority (TMA)representative, Environ Protection Agency representative, journalist, citizens and politicians who select the local Community Based Organizations (CBOs) for the program (e-guard) in the targeted districts.
3-Formation of Project Overseeing Committee (POC):
POC patronize and direct for the workable sanitation program in the district. POC is responsible for identification of potential CBO. Moreover POC analyzes the performance of the CBOs. Following are the members of POC who facilitate and direct the program.
- District Coordination Officer of the target district (Chairperson and focal person)
- Tehsil Municipal Officer (Member)
- Executive District Officer Social Welfare (Member)
- Akhter Hameed Khan Memorial Trust(Member)
- Partner Organization Representatives(Member)
- Community Representative(Member)
4- 3 Day Orientation Training:
Ten persons totally are trained in each district on the techniques and strategies of solid waste management. Two persons from local implementing CBO, two members from POC, two members from TMA and two members from the targeted community are included.
5- Training Manual:
AHKMT has developed a training manual that guides the trainees on the concepts and tools applied.
6- Grant to CBO:
Local CBO sign with contract with the donor organization while AHKMT provides technical assistance.
7- Area Selection:
Minimum 500 households population living in the same vicinity is required to initiate the intervention in target district. The route maps of the target areas are developed that help to plan the primary collection and nominating dumping places and secondary collection.
8- CBO Survey of Targetted Area:
Local CBO conduct survey of the area focusing on health issues, household’s income and solid waste facilities in the target area. This survey is an entry tool as well for the target households/ area.
9- Line Meetings:
Line meetings are conducted in each street of the target area.
Line managers mostly females are selected during line meeting, Line manager is focal person for that specific street.
e-guard is introduced in line meeting.
The data collected by the survey is shared during line meetings with the community.
10- Sanitation WeeK:
Local CBO celebrate sanitation week in the target area involving local community and TMA. This activity focuses cleanliness of streets in the target area by clearing dumping points.
11- Painting Competitions:
In different stages painting competitions are organized in the target area to aware the students, teachers, and parents on solid waste issues. The following steps are followed to organize painting competitions:
- One day orientation is conducted in which the principal and two teachers of each school of the target area participate. They are briefed for the next stages that are as under.
- In each school students of elementary classes in involved to develop paintings focused on solid waste issues.
- The best paintings from each school are selected and displayed in a cluster painting competition. Journalist, notables, Arts Council members and university faculty members are invited in this event. The best paintings are awarded prizes.
12- Service Delivery:
(Hygiene Kit)– AHKMT has designed hygiene kit that comprised of uniform, gloves, shoes, soap, towel etc that is given to e-guard to use.
(Design of Wheelbarrows)- A special wheel barrow is designed for primary collection that has sufficient space and easy to handle. This special wheelbarrow has the capacity to pick solid waste of 500 households.
(Prizes to e-guards)- , e- guards are awarded prizes to encourage them and acknowledge their services.
13- Mobilization Material:
During line meetings community members are given mobilization materials like posters, handouts etc. Posters and banners are used during sanitation week.
In most of the cases e-guard program focus on primary collection and segregation. There is another innovation in AHKMT designed model that if there is not secondary collection in any target area then compost plant is installed there. AHKMT apply EM technology for production of organic fertilizer by the segregated green waste.