Currently solid waste in Pakistan has not been carried out in a sufficient and proper manner in collection, transportation and disposal or dumping regardless of the size of the Major cities, Remote areas and small town facing more crucial situation. Therefore the environmental and sanitary conditions have become more serious year by year, and people are suffering from living such conditions. The scope of problems regarding solid waste management is very wide and involves the consideration of all the aspects relating to solid waste and its management, either directly or indirectly. These aspect may include rate of urbanization, pattern and density of urban areas, physical planning and control of development, physical composition of waste, density of waste, temperature and precipitation, scavenger’s activity for recyclable separation, the capacity, adequacy and limitations of respective municipalities to manage the solid waste i.e. storage, collection, transportation and disposal (SAIAN, 1995).According to the 1998 census, of the 130.579million persons living in Pakistan, 67% live in rural areas, while 33 % live in urban areas.
Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan Memorial Trust, develop a model of “e-guard” project. E-guard is solid waste management and community composting program. E-guard project is experience in those areas of Rawalpindi where the Government services were unavailable or limited. Primary collection system was established for 1000 household. PMC formed for local supervision and sustainability of the project. The community paid Rs. 100/- month for services which is important for the sustainability of the project. “Haryali Center” was established in the project area where the waste is segregate and compost. A collector at “Haryali Center” purchases the non-organic waste from the e-guard waste collectors.
The Northern Areas of Pakistan borders with China in the North East and Afghanistan in the North and India in the North East. It is scattered over an area of 27000 sq km with a population of over 1.2 million residing in different valleys, towns and in urban areas. The Northern Areas remained largely untouched with the outside world till the opening of Karakoram Highway (KKH) in early eighties. Its economic base remained subsistence agriculture with low literacy rate and poor conditions of social sector services. But opening of roads connected the region with China and major commercial centers of Pakistan. It also increased the urbanization. In the decade of eighties, the per capita income was about 30 % of the national average. The decades following the opening of KKH have brought drastic changes in the sphere of education, rural development, social services, tourism, institutional development, trade and commerce and human resource development.
AHKMT Team (Program Manager Sumaira Gul, Team leader Hamidullah) starts visit from 14 Sep – 16 Sep 2011 for the replication of E-guard program and prepare a feasibility report. The purpose of visit was:
Potential Partner (ZADO)
Zulfiqarabad Area Development Organization (ZADO) is a community based nongovernmental organization formed by the rural/ urban communities living in the rugged mountainous and remote valley of Gilgit. It is a non communal ethno – linguistic, non –political, non religious and nonprofit Development Organization working for the communities of the valley.
The Zulfiqarabad Area Development Organization (ZADO) is under the Union Council of District Gilgit NAs of Pakistan. It is situated in Cantt area Jutial Gilgit at a distance of six km from Gilgit city. Its population estimated to be more than (10,000) ten thousands. This population representing 12 large Mohall’s organized in 12 main Mohalla for administrative ease, twenty three VOs /WOs at six civil society organizations (CSOs) and Advisory committee for linkages with government.
During the visit of Zulfiqar Abad development AHKMT team meet with ZADO Manager Mr. Amin discussed that they have staff of only 3 members (1 Manager, 1 Male SO, 1peon) AKRSP is supporting them. They controlled 45 organizations which are running saving programs. One of the organizations has more than 200 members. ZADO saves more than 16.5 million. This saving is distributed among all the members equally. Also provide them loan in case of immediate need. Moreover they signed MOU of 2.5 million with EPA provide dustbins for 500 households as well 04 large dust bins.
Field visit ZADO Project Area
AHKMT team and ZADO’s Manager and supervisor visited the field area. Yaseen colony was newly constructing area during this we noticed there was a natural drain which has sweet drinking water where the community throws the garbage here. Waste is rarely visible in Nullah but according to population growth and settlement there is danger in the succession periods.
During the visit team meet with one of the shop keeper said “he is member of saving group and also trained on CLTS. He complained ZADO to provide them container but unfortunately one of the containers (dust bin) was theft”.
After that we meet with Ms. Naheed, member of women saving group, and President of saving group Bibi Jan. Both of the ladies filled their survey form regarding solid waste management.
According to our observation there were no waste in the houses of both ladies … They explained that they are using fruit and vegetables pales as feed for their pets (Cow, goat etc). They gathered toke in a bag after a time scraper collect this and give them 100-150 rupees. Newspapers and old papers are selling but they have not a solution of glass bottles and empty milk boxes. Somehow plastic and shopping bags shoes are sells on other case they burn them. Empty bottles are clearly visible in houses as on streets some of the pupil broke these on way. Kitchen gardening is on process but they are facing problems of pesticides. We suggest community is prepared their own house made fertilizer.
Dumping Point (land fill side)
On the river bench all the city waste is throwing in the river without any kind of process. Therefore, there is huge waste is gathered it contains with glass and harmful hospital waste.
Another site is visited which situated nearby Karakorum university. Land is government property; municipality and community openly throw their waste. The dead animals become of the cause of population when crows & eagles are come for in search of food.
Visit of Informal sector
In ZADO project area (Zulfiqar Abad UC Jatyal), we visit commercial area. During the interview with shopkeeper Mr. Bahadur khan told that he is purchasing these items. We asked, if such scrap collect on the door step on weekly bases from the ZADO saving groups, is it possible or not? He agreed by doing such job and appoint 04 persons.
|Item||Purchasing price||Sell price|
|Plastic bottle||30 kg||45|
|Hard & soft cards||05 kg||14|
Visit of City area (Konodas and Machiny muhalla Mughal pura)
We visited Mughal pura and Konodas situated on river bank. Municipality as well as community very disturb on management of solid waste. More waste is generated in these areas so community having keen concern on this. 02 survey forms were filled from both areas for analyzing the situation of SWM.
Visit of EPA office
In EPA office team meet with Mr. Haider raza (planning commission) Mr. Iqtadar Hussain Shah (Scientific officer) said our project consist on 05million rupees .in this project 02 heavy machines dustbins for 500 households and 04 large dustbins. Project covers the 300 households of Zulfiqar Abad. ZEDO will responsible for primary collection and community will pay them 50 rupees a month. Municipality will provide them tractor trolley etc. land will hire on lease for main dumping point. On this ZEDO and EPA will jointly functioned the process of segregation and composting. On start of the project fund assigned and the purchase machinery, dust bins but unfortunately unavailability of fund project cannot be run further.
PC is developed 1 UN project through solid waste management Gilgit and Sakkardu will be model city.
EPA suggests that UN provide us vehicles and fuel for secondary collection. Provision of 1000 dustbins, staff salaries and other expenses of ZEDO for starting of the project. Arrange some training or visits for capacity building of community and staff.
Visit of Municipal office
Meeting with CSI Mr. Nasir Hussain he told that
Visit of GHQ
Gilgit city have 06 hospitals their solid waste pollute the city
Operation theater waste and other solid waste are separately collected. Harmful OT waste is burn by inserter. Burn waste is collected by municipality. This waste is burn with other material like dry leafs etc. this all process is occurring on night time.
When we visit that place waste is spread all around and machine is not on the situation which shows that it is using on daily bases. Inspector is also not willing to inspect the machine.
After that we meet with Mr. Nasir Hussain CSI it is shocking that hospital is just dumping the waste without any kind of process. Sanitary workers are carrying the waste without any care or hygienic kit etc. hospital waste is not collected on daily bases because sanitary workers are not willing but they have to do after an extreme pressure by administration.GHQ was the only hospital of the facility of inserter. Other hospital is directly dumped into river or land fill side. (Waste is throwing into river from land fill side)
Meeting with Chief Officer Mr. Zulfiqar
Team meet with Mr. Zulfiqar C.O discussed the problems of city. He said unavailability of the sanitary workers is the biggest challenge for city. Citizens of the city bother this work as the cheapest work they do not want to use broom as well cart. As the solution discussed with Contractor also pay them some amount he went to Punjab for the hiring of sanitary workers.
For the solution AHKMT Team share an idea distribute shopping bags among sanitary workers will be on uniform and mask they load the waste in vehicle. This vehicle will dump into dumping point and segregate on that spot.
Total estimate of this process is 150rupees a house hold community is agree to pay 50 rupees a month so municipality have to bear these 100 rupees. Mr. Zulfiqar says that they have lack of funds they are willing to pay 50 rupees as per house hold. He is also willing to provide vehicle trolley and shopping bags (as per sponsor).
He said they are willing to fully cooperate local organizations have no potential to show their worth. Some of the organizations want to sign MOU but they all are contractor so we refused.
If E-guard will replicate in the Gilgit they will fully support and sign MOU. He also promise help on secondary collection construction and provision of machinery. Target 1000 households on starting after that it will replicate in full city. He suggests starting work in Konodas Mohalla mostly houses are on rent. If work start on winters so result will not good it is better to start work in month of March. He is also willing to start MOU on 1st of next month.
Mr.CSI also explain that it is the biggest problem he want to sign MOU for 3 months after for a year after the success of this model program will replicate in entire city permanently. For the promotion of the program they will also highlight in Media.
Meeting with Social welfare officer
Welfare organization is a registered organization which is working in Machiny Mohallah Mughal pura with the help of EPA. On this they collect shopping bags with name of “Use of shopping collection and recycling project “total budget was 160000 pak rupees. For this 10 ladies of 05 different mohallas conducted a survey. They visit in field once a week and paid 1000 rupees as stipend. These ladies aware the community about harm full affect of shopping bags.
Collect the shopping bags and clean these after that pack on the size bases. This organization purchase shopping bags from households as per 20 rupees kg and sell into market as per 100 rupees kg. On first 06 month 18kg shopping bags were purchased. They also try to recycle the shopping bags but it was not very success full. Moreover they are successful to aware community about harm full affects of shopping bags.
He said we also want to establish a solid waste model for this Survey of 200 households of Machiny Mohallah is conducted community is willing he offer AHKMT to establish first unit there and take contract with municipality because he is govt employee but willing to start work on initial level of 100 households.
Possibilities of work
Karim Town Zulfiqar Abad
Survey Forms by Solid Waste
AHKMT visited 05 differently mohallas in Gilgit area randomly. As per mention in the below table, mostly the people are resident and living for the last 10-14 years.
|Information regarding HH|
|Mohalla||Name of Head||Interviewer
|Yasmeen Colony||Niat Khan||Perveen||More than 30 months||Rented|
|Yasmeen Colony||Rahmat Ali Khan||Bibi Jan||More than 30 months||Own|
|Rahman Colony||Sanam Bano||Munira||More than 10 years||Own|
|Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||Lala Bagum||Lala Bagum||More than 14 years||Own|
|Machani Mohalla||Naheed||Naheed||More than 03 years||Rented|
The table below shows that in the residential area male are male is 47% are females are 53%. Male and female are nearly equal in numbers.
|Information regarding residential people|
|Yasmeen Colony||Yasmeen Colony||Rahman Colony||Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||Machani Mohalla|
There is middle class people are living in these areas which have the following income.
|Monthly Expenses by HH|
|Mohallah||Family Member||Monthly Expenses
|Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||3||8,000|
Mostly the people are healthy which indicate the clean environment. One of lady is the patient of sugar and blood pressure and one is throat infection.
|Disease Person during the last 2 months|
|Mohalla||Name of Disease||Adult
|Adult Male||Girls||Boys||Children||Avg Cost
|Rahman Colony||Sugar, Blood
|Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||0||0||0||0||0|
|Machani Mohalla||Throat Infection||0||0||0||1||0||500|
Most of the houses have the dustbin at their house, which is used likely in the kitchen. So, the garbage is throwing at proper place.
|Mohalla||Is in your house
|If Yes then how
|Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||Yes||1||1||0||0|
Most of the people throw the garbage in the open area but at the safe place but some throw not at proper place.
|Place use for throwing the garbage|
|Yasmeen Colony||0||in the plot||0||0||0|
|Yasmeen Colony||0||0||0||0||They throw the garbage
inside their home.
|Rahman Colony||0||0||0||0||Vegetables and fruits eat by animals
and non-organic is burnt.
|Mujahid Colony (Kono Das)||0||in the plot||0||0||0|
|Machani Mohalla||0||0||0||0||They throw the garbage
besides the road.
People are agreed to pay Rs. 30-100, if sweeper appoint in their area.
There are some committees are working in the area namely:
One of the mohalla has got the training of solid waste as organized by AKRSP. Now the mohalla is clean and people are happy.
During the visit, most of the houses are seen clean and their cleanliness was quite better.
There was garbage everywhere but green waste does not exist because such waste is used as hay for animals.
|Expense Sheet (Gilgit Visit)|
|Sr.||Date||Head of Expense||Description||Rs.|
|1||14-Sep-11||Accommodation||Room charges and food.||1,715|
|4||15-Sep-11||Accommodation||Room charges and food.||2,315|
|7||16-Sep-11||Local Traveling||Car used for 3 days 3@2,000||6,000|
|9||16-Sep-11||Traveling||Gilgit to Pindi via bus (02 tickets)||4,200|
|10||Per diem||02 persons for 03 days|