Replication of Integrated Resource Recovery Center in Small Cities

Final Report of Integrated Resources Recovery Center
January 1, 2016
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Replication of Integrated Resource Recovery Center in Small Cities

Summary

Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan Memorial Trust (AHKMT) had planned to organize the trainings with funding support of German Embassy Islamabad.

It has major objective to train the maximum participants from different cities for the replication of Integrated Resource Recovery Center through integrated waste management approaches. AHKMT coordinate with district administration, Municipality, Elected representatives, CBO’s, Academia and community, and invited them to attend the training’s. To organize the training it is most important to develop the training material. Training Module was developed as per requirement; diary, broacher, and pamphlet were designed.Video documentary was also developed. All the material was developed by the experts of regarding field. They prepared contents and design.

For the replication of Integrated Resource Recover Center (IRRC)  Timergara,Charsada,Mardan,Swat,Muzaffergarh,fatehjung,chakwal,layya,Rajanpur Gujranwala, Mianwali, Kallar Sayyedan, Abbottabad, Haripur, Lahore, Karachi, Muzafferabad and Mansehra representatives participated in training. AHKMT facilitated in form of accommodation, travel and meals. AHKMT has organized 04 trainings. In all these trainings 76 Participants were trained. All these trainings were organized in Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan National Center for Rural Development.

 In project proposal AHKMT had proposed to conduct 12 trainings and train 120 participants.  In 04 trainings 76 participants has trained to achieve the set target we are keep in touch with some other organizations to organize trainings for their partner organizations and staff as well.  it has plan to organize more trainings although in coming months AHKMT would achieve the target.

Different experts of Solid Waste Management, technical persons, relevant lane department officials, Development sector partners and professionals from different universities share their technical expertise with participants to make training fruitful.

For the reporting purpose AHKMT engaged the different experts for the reporting of trainings. Reporting Officers were engaged according to the requirement.

After the trainings follow up meetings were organized in Timergara, Fatehjung, Mansehra,Swat and Mardan. With close coordination of AHKMT they are organizing different activities as like awareness walks, world environment day, Cleanness campaign and forum. Some of the cities are in process to plan the activities.

Background

Integrated Resource Recovery Center (IRRC) is replication of Waste Concern Dhaka Model. Center has established in G-15 Islamabad with collaboration of UN Habitat and ESCAP. Jammu & Kashmir Cooperative Housing Society has provided the land with leasing agreement.

e-guard is collecting 1300 households waste on daily bases. In IRRC all waste is segregating and divide into 03 categories. Center has processing 03 tons organic waste on daily bases. It is best sustainable model for replication.

IRRC has adopted decentralized approach one center is enough for processing of 3500 households organic waste. For the replication of IRRC it is important to aware and train the stakeholders on IRRC integrated approach. It is first step to introduce IRRC into different cities and build their level of interest. For this purpose AHKMT was planned 04 trainings for different districts of KPK, Punjab, AJK and Karachi with support of German Embassy.

Materials

Manuals “Business plan for Solid Waste”, and baseline format for Solid Waste, as a Step-by Step guide of how to start a community-based waste collection service” along with Power Point Presentation, and Broachers were used for training. These materials provide a comprehensive and useful introduction to the wide range of issues related to solid waste management and theirs solutions.  

To organize the trainings in proper and effective way it was important to develop different kind of material for the participants. AHKMT has developed diaries, file folders, broacher, pamphlet and video documentary. All the material was developed by the experts of regarding field. They prepared contents and design. After that it published according to the requirement of the trainings and usage.

In this material AHKMT, IRRC introduction and brief methodology is published. It is very fruitful to explain all points with details and pictures

Training on Solid Waste Management

Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan Memorial Trust (AHKMT) organized 04 trainings on replication of IRRC through integrated solid waste management in months of April & May 2016 at Akhtar Hameed Khan National Center for Rural Development Islamabad. Trainings were focused on Replication of Integrated Resource Recovery Center in Small Cities.

Each of the training was residential and consists of 03 days. First day is focused on theory and concept. Second day exposure visit of IRRC has taken place in all trainings. On third and last day participants develop their plan of action for implementation of IRRC. Plan of action is based on the real situation of the area.

The participants

Following were the participants of the training.

  • Tehsil/ District Administration Representative (AC/DC)
  • Representatives from Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs)
  • Elected members (councilors & UC chairpersons)
  • Civil Society representatives
  • Academia

The Districts

Following districts were covered in training

  1. Timergara
  2. Charsada
  3. Mardan
  4. Swat
  5. Muzaffergarh
  6. Fatehjung
  7. Chakwal
  8. Layya
  9. Rajanpur
  10. Gujranwala
  11. Mianwali
  12. Kallar Sayyedan
  13. Abbottabad
  14. Haripur
  15. Muzafferabad
  16. Mansehra
  17. From Karachi and Lahore 02 organizations representatives were specially participated in training

Mode of the training

  • Medium of instruction was Urdu
  • Presentations by resource persons
  • Group discussions
  • Group Work
  • Group presentations
  • Exposure visit

Objectives achieved in training

Following were the objectives of the training.

  • To impart knowledge and skills and also change the attitude of Municipalities on solid waste management, potential job creation and income generation.
  • Improved capacities among the public and private stakeholders to deliver basic solid waste management services in order to improve the living and working conditions in selected (low-income) settlements.
  • Placing the sector’s accumulated knowledge in a larger context of Integrated Solid Waste Management
  • To sensitize the participants about the threats regarding solid waste management.
  • To increase the awareness regarding solid waste management, through SWOT analysis of the situation.
  • To increase collaboration between government bodies and civil society organizations regarding solid waste management.
  • To introduce the alternative model for solid waste management to enable TMAs to replicate this model and generate resources from waste.

Immediate Objectives       

  • Promoting decentralized  and  Integrated  Resource  Recovery  Centers  (IRRCs)  in  secondary  cities  and  small  towns  with an objective to recover value from waste and provide livelihood opportunities to the urban poor
  • Equipping participants with basic knowledge for sound management of solid waste as well as improving the existing skills on SWM handling systems through provision of both entrepreneurship and technical skills.
  • Increased employment opportunities and higher income for sanitary workers and CBOs in delivering SWM services
  • To prepare the participants about the threats regarding solid waste management and increase the awareness about solid waste management.
  • To increase collaboration between government bodies and civil society organizations regarding solid waste management.
  • To introduce the alternative model for solid waste management to enable TMAs to replicate this model and generate resources from waste.

Methodologies and Training Approach

The theme of the training was “Training and Capacity Building Workshop on Municipal Solid Waste Sustainable Solutions” Hence it was conducted in two parts namely the technical part with related topics and the business part.

 Sessions equivalent to three (3) days concentrated on technical issues specific to Solid Waste Management (SWM) and related topics along with business aspects of setting up waste management services.

The training approach used was trainee-cantered, focusing on the skills, knowledge and experiences of the trainee. The training aimed at initiating and accelerating the process of change towards Entrepreneurship skills, Solid Waste Management: i.e. collection, disposal, recycling, reuse and reduction of waste using appropriate technologies through inculcating an entrepreneurship/business like culture.

The training methodology was purely participatory and involved the whole person i.e. the trainees were able to use all senses. These included lectures, Role-plays, Business games, Group dynamics, Exercises, etc. the training used a matrix of all these to make the training bring more impact and produce tangible results.

The active participation by trainees aimed at sharing experiences and ideas among trainees and trainers. During the training some of the activities were also taken place aware and engage the participants.

A lot of methods used by facilitators during the training were those that encouraged the participants to bring out their own experiences. Some of these included open discussion, group discussion, case studies, practical exercises with waste; field visits to sites with waste activities, energizers and classroom games. Also the trainees had an opportunity to practice the knowledge, and skills acquired in discussions in-groups, group works and field visits.

Overall trainings were interactive and productive. Participants shared their questions and points. After each session questions were welcomed and address all the relevant as well share the details of regarding. All resource persons were also tried to deliver their best knowledge to the participants.

Trainers

AHKMT four trainers facilitated the training. They are experts specialized in integrated  solid waste system ,Business and Entrepreneurship skills; SWM approaches, technologies and recycling as well as related topics which include  Occupational safety and Health, transportation of waste and Maintenance of SWM equipment and tools, proper service schedules and monitoring Research and Evaluation.

Guest speakers from national renowned research institutions and universities such as Arid agricultures university Rawalpindi and NUST professional experts were part of this training as they are on panel of AHKMT. Our guest speakers facilitated in different topics, Technical experts from UNHABITATE are also part of this training. They presented their technical experiences and lesson learned about the IRRC model.

 Day one

The program was started with the recitation of the Holy Quran by a participant.

Welcome & Introduction

On first day Welcome and introductory session was conducted. All the participants introduce their self.

Welcome remarks

In each training AHKMT officials welcomed all the participants and shared that it is great to see the participants from different areas especially those who have travelled from far off areas and it showed their concern to learn about the issue and put into practice as per their capacities and their particular environment. Training would learning to manage the waste and making it a resource instead of a waste, will help the concerned departments to generate resources at one hand from the waste and save the population and environment on the other hand.

Further shared that the training will help the participant to make their task easier in case of management of waste and the experts during training will focus the issue in diverse ways so that the participants get comprehensive knowledge and expertise in this regard.

Pre Evaluation

Ms. Sadia Kirmani briefed the participants about the pre evaluation process and a form was given to the participants. The form, contained  information to check the knowledge of the participants regarding the solid waste management.

As per the filled forms, most of the participants were not aware of the real hazards of the solid waste and even fewer knew that waste can be utilized to generate resources.

Global Overview by Ms. Sumaira Gul.

Ms. Sumaira Gul shared a detailed presentation about the Global Overview of Solid Waste. “Solid waste is not only a problem of Pakistan but it’s a problem of whole world’’. According to which by the year 2050 the population will be more than 9 billion and these population produces lot of waste. Therefore we will be having more waste than our population if we don’t manage it in a proper way. The ratio of rural versus Urban is 70:30 which is changed to approximately 40: 60 and change is on.  After that explains the types of waste, i.e. Municipal waste, Hazardous waste, Agriculture waste, Construction waste, E-waste, Radioactive Waste. Further discusses composition of waste, which is organic waste, inorganic waste and rejected waste. Enlighten the waste production and waste management. waste is mostly produced by the wealth people, while poor people are best at waste management, they give their green waste to their animals and sell their recyclable waste to buy their daily usable things like cups etc. also in India the people are so poor that the use their garment for generations. The developed countries produced about 1.3billion tons of solid waste per year which will reached to 2.2billion by the end of 2025.Population rate is slow as compare to waste production and developed countries produces 46% of organic waste. Further divided the Asian countries in High, Middle and Low income countries, According to which the Low income countries produces high percent of Organic waste (76%).  Current practices of solid waste in Asia are to put different bins for the collection of solid waste. We are having almost similar sweeping system but in some big and developed cities they are using mechanical sweeping. In developed countries every person should pay for their waste handling. i.e. the Korean government put a disposal fee in every stuff like plastic bag is expensive than a paper bag. Similarly in European countries like Belgium, they charge the tourist about 20-22 € as city tax for handling their waste. The developed countries use modern technologies to handle and dispose-off their waste. In developed countries segregation of waste take place at different stages, they put different color of bins to segregate their waste, while on other hand people from everyday life help out in segregation practices. In developed countries compost is made on a large scale, in Korea they use 50% sludge & organic waste and 50% saw dust for good compost. Other type of waste is recyclable or non-recyclable. The developed countries incinerate the non-recyclable waste and produce energy from it. The ash which remains during incineration are then transported to the landfill sites, where it is dumped under scientific way. They manage and control the leachate of their landfill sites. When a landfill site filled they make parks on such point areas. Poor or non-management of solid waste leads to public health concerns/impacts. It produces strong negative health impacts like gastrointestinal and respiratory infection especially in children. On other hand solid waste blocks the pathways of drains, which can leads to floods and infectious diseases through flies because they live in such places. It also leads to environmental issues and pollute surface water as well as ground water. Upon burning the waste in open leads to air pollution, which became the cause of climatic changes. The participants showed strong interest to the session. The session was much interactive, because some participants have no idea about solid waste and its management. After the presentation participant understand about the basic concept of solid waste and their management. 

An activity was performed with the participants in whom they learn how to calculate the amount of waste generated in their respected areas. All the participants take part in the practical work and calculate the total amount (Volume) of waste generated in their areas.

Feedback by the participants

  • For most of the participants, it was the first time they were having a detailed information regarding solid waste and its impacts on our life and environment.
  • It was shared by the participants that earlier they thought that all kind of waste is useless.
  • The difference between different types of waste became clear and also the understanding of segregating waste.
  • The concept of recyling waste was new for most of the participants and they expressed their opinion openly regarding initiatives they can take in their districts accordingly.

Waste Situation in KPK by Mr. Asif Shah

Mr. Asif Shah Share the waste situation of Pakistan he keenly focused on KPK situation. During the presentation he introduces the waste. What is waste, its types and composition was shared. Overall session was interactive. All questions were addressed which rose by the participants during presentation. The city wise waste generation transportation weight was shared. TMA’s are able to collect only 50%-60% waste. All other waste is a part of river and cause of other hazardous.

Waste Situation in Punjab by Mr. Jamil Bhatti

Mr. Jamil Bhatti having experience in waste management in Pakistan amply discussed the situation in Punjab province. He shared that almost in whole of Punjab; Solid Waste is being managed without following sound technical practices and best available technologies. There is a severe lack of technical know-how and appropriate selection of technology including waste collection method, storage equipment, transportation vehicle and disposal technology which are economical, effective and efficient.

It is shared that waste is not a useless thing but it is in fact a resource and other countries in the world has already done lot to manage it in a way that it become a manifold benefit for them.  In the case of Punjab, one of the most critical problems emerging from its rapid urban expansion is waste generation and disposal without treatment. The amount of solid waste generated in urban Pakistan is more than 55,000 tons per day, and waste collection in cities currently averages only 50% of waste generation.  In Punjab’s urban areas, 40% of the total amount of waste generated which is more than 16,000 tons per day is collected. Moreover most of the TMAs do not have proper dumping or landfill sites. It is known that uncollected waste is placed in or beside common places and roads. It is widely accepted that waste untreated and dumped close to living spaces may cause contamination of surface and ground water and threaten human health directly and indirectly. The problems related to solid waste and its management in Punjab is not merely an outcome of urban resource restrictions. More fundamentally, they arise from the lack of a comprehensive waste management system and strategy that encompasses functions of governance, institutions, finance and technology. It is thus urgent to tackle these problems with comprehensive and interdisciplinary approaches. Legal and institutional implementation is primarily dealt with in the Project, and moreover, Environmental, technological and economic methodologies have to be applied to build an appropriate SWM system designed for Punjab, as well as to analyze the validity/impact of considerable alternative SWM systems and facilities.

Explain the process in step wise, which are

Mobilization à Organization à Primary Collection à Secondary Collection à Disposal à Recycling.

The municipality should designate proper places where solid waste has to be dumped. In Pakistan unfortunately there is only secondary collection; we only transport our waste from one place to another place, there is no proper disposal in Pakistan. “Waste is untapped resources; we can make money out of it”. In Pakistan we have 50-60% Organic waste, 20-30% of inorganic waste and rest of it is RDF (Refuse dry fuel).Informal sector is collecting almost 20% of recyclables. The organic waste can be treated and utilized as a source of energy and bio fertilizer while RDF can be incinerated and energy can be taken from the incineration. Unfortunately there is no proper and scientific landfill throughout Pakistan, except of is currently under construction in Lahore. In Multan about 40% untreated waste is dumped in landfill. Improper landfills not only contaminant the soil and surface water but the leachate from solid waste can percolates to the precious ground water and contaminate it as well; that’s produce a high risk to human health.

It is the need of the time to manage the solid waste with a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach. We need to do proper implementation of our solid waste management rules; to build an environment friendly Pakistan.

 

Feedback by the participants

The participants shared their views and following are some of the key points.

  • He used simple language and practical examples from his extensive experience.
  • The situation of SWM in Punjab could better but even then it was satisfactory to understand the issues.
  • The challenges and way forward was also hinted so that TMAs can adopt any of the suitable method according to their specific situation.

Group work

Ms. Sadia Kirmani facilitated a group work. Representatives from all the districts were asked to analyze the current volume of solid waste in their respective areas on daily basis as per population. Following were the findings.

Area Population Waste per day Total waste per day in Kgs Total waste in tons Volume of Collected waste
Mianwali 200,000 0.5 kg /c/day 100,000 10 No answer
Fateh Jang 40,000 0.4 kg /c/day 16,000 16 75 %
Gujranwala 400,000 0.5 kg /c/day 200,000 2000 No answer
Kalar Syedan 20000 0.5 kg /c/day 10,000 10 No answer
Layyah 120,000 0.5 kg /c/day 60,000 6 No answer
Talagang 50000 0.5 kg /c/day 25000 2.5 No answer
Muzffargarh 150,000 0.5 kg /c/day 75000 7.5 No answer

 

Impacts of Waste by Dr. Zeeshan (NUST University)

 

Dr. Zeeshan, having his Ph.D. in Solid Waste from Bangkok and recently a lecturer in NUST, discussed Negative Impact of Solid Waste and its Control elaborating the different aspects of SWM especially focused scientific data regarding volume of waste, composition of waste, its chemical nature and its impacts on human health, environment and the way it contaminates ground water, gas emissions and accidents related to it.

Waste generation rate in Pakistan is 0.4 – 0.6 kg/person/day and mainly disposed-off by open dumping out of which 50 – 70 % of waste is biodegradable but it is handled and disposed in improper ways therefore it contains Health risks for the population and environment. decomposing wastes attract animal, vermin and flies, all playing a role in disease transmission, solid waste often contains faeces, in times of famine the poor may be attracted to waste as food source, physical risk of injury (children and workers dealing with waste), fire hazards and water and air pollution.

Following health risks were shared with participants

  • Dioxins and furans è genotoxic
  • Other harmful gases from burning è lung cancer
  • Improperly managed open pits attract all types of insects and rodents that spread vector diseases e.g. Dengue, Malaria
  • Direct handling of garbage è chronic diseases
  • Birds become entangled
  • Most animals die after accidently eating the plastic bags by mistaking it for food

Discussing the Waste management System shared that 3Rs methodology can help in great way.

Reduce Reuse and Recycle

  • 3R ==> lower energy demand for virgin materials ==> avoided fossil fuel use ==> reduced emission
  • 3R ==> less landfilling & incineration ==> less emission
  • 3R ==> more trees stand in forest ==> Increased C storage in trees ==> more CO2 intake

While sharing about how to improve the situation it  needs commitment of national and local governments, recognise the importance of the informal sector, integrate them into the solid waste management system,  give opportunities to recycle on household level or at transfer stations, promote and support the use of recycled products, support programmes for social integration of  ECO-HELPERS (refrain using terms like scavengers or waste pickers), support and try organising alternative organisation structure (partly formalised), e.g. co-operatives,  and if possible as close to the waste generation source as possible.

Compost by Dr. Ghulam Jillani (Arid Agriculture University)

 

Dr. Ghulam Jillani is professor of agriculture in Arid University Rawalpindi and expert in Composting. He shared that composting is a biological process in which microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and other organisms convert organic materials, such as leaves, manure, sludge, paper, grass clippings and food wastes into a soil like material called compost or humus. Compost is an economic and safe way for treatment of organic waste and has high concentrations of organic matter and available nutrients.

 

 

 

Chemical and physical characteristics of the mature compost were also shared

The traditional method of composting takes almost a year and the certain elements in the farmyard manure can be wasted in this process. This traditional compost is mainly used in less fertile land and in some specific crops such as sugarcane, vegetables and orchards etc. For healthy composting, segregation of organic and inorganic waste is basic and it is basic need of the future generations. It will not only clean environment but also will provide healthy crops to the people and lesser contamination of water will be possible

Compost keeps organic wastes out of landfills, provides nutrients to the soil, increases beneficial soil organisms, oppresses certain plant diseases, reduces the need for fertilizers / pesticides, protects soils from erosion and assists pollution remediation

The scientific method of composting is vital for getting quality compost which can be far better for the crops and environment as well. The below table shows the ratio of different ingredients in the compost

Sample # pH EC Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
1 5.5 0.4 1% 0.3 1
2 5.3 0.5 1.1% 0.3 1.4
3 5.6 0.5 0.99% 0.4 1.3

Value addition should have enrichment of compost with rock phosphate, phosphorus solubilising bacteria, elemental sulphur and sulphur oxidizing bacteria etc, optimization of technology for Enriched compost and it should be a patent product and its registration under Fertilizer Control Ordinance of Pakistan is necessary.

Feedback by the participants

  • Upon the questions he replied that the temperature of the soil is important to get maximum benefit from the compost.
  • Canal water contains more organic organisms such as Potassium and it is more beneficial for the crops. This water is more beneficial for sandy areas.
  • The participants shared some challenges that shifting from chemical fertilizers to organic is time taking and farmers are reluctant in this regard.
  • The change in behaviour is necessary to adopt environment friendly cultivation and the only solution to increase soil fertility and manages waste is the composting in rural and urban areas both.

 Day Two

Recap of the day 1

Following points were shared by the participants in 1st day recap.

  • They came to know about the formula of the per capita solid waste.
  • They came to know that trash is cash.
  • They came to know about the severity of the issue.
  • Collection of waste at different levels was new for some of the participants.
  • The responsibilities of the government and that of people became clearer.
  • They learnt about composting, its different aspects and how to improve it.

 

AHKMT & E-GURAD Introduction by Mr. Hamidullah

AHKMT & e-guard Introduction was presented by Mr. Hamid Ullah. He describes the introduction and how e-guard was established.

Model was developed in Bangladesh  AHKMT team visited and learned about it.  With the help of different donors, it has been started in G-15 sector of Islamabad where a private housing society allotted land on lease to AHKMT. Later on a separate company E-Guard was registered to run it independently. It was a basic change in the concept of SWM as earlier the waste was just collected and dumped but this process helped to recycle the 90 % of waste into organic fertilizer or recyclable items sold in the market to make different products. At present in Islamabad and Rawalpindi there are about 22 factories, smaller or bigger, being run to produce different products from solid waste.

 A detailed presentation shows different aspects of IRRC from initial step to the composting and selling. One IRRC is enough for one UC and the waste should be delivered directly to IRRC from homes. The income of one IRRC can match that of one CNG station.

IRRC Importance by Touqeer Abbasi Water Aid

Mr. Touqeer Abbasi shared that he is founder member of IRRC in Islamabad Pakistan. The IRRC concept was new for Pakistan. It is implemented in different countries 17 cities. The Model was initiated by Waste Concern Dhaka. In different countries IRRC have different capacities it can design for 2-20kg organic waste. It has aerobic system which is supporting the environment.in aerobic system generation of methane is minimize rather than alternate way.

In IRRC waste is handling in very technical way green waste put up into waste box for compost making. Waste stayed there almost 60 days during these days twice a day waste temperature is checked and record. Same like this waste moisture is also check for record, in case there is most moisture so saw dust sprinkle if all waste is most dry in this case leachate sprinkle to the waste. It is general methodology adopted in all countries.

Same decentralized approach has been adopted in Islamabad IRRC. Facility has the capacity of 03-5 tons organic waste processing on daily bases with same approach

IRRC Introduction by Sadia Kirmani

Ms. Sadia Kirmani shared that IRRC model was developed with the help of UN Habitat & ESCAP, it has been started in G-15 sector of Islamabad where a private housing society allotted land on lease to AHKMT.

IRRC is a facility where significant portion (80-90%) of waste can be composted/recycled and processed in a cost effective way near the source of generation in a decentralized manner. IRRC is based on 3 R Principle. All the waste segregate into 03 parts Organic, recyclable and rejects waste. It is sustainable low cost less mechanical technology. Natural Compost, Biogas, Bio diesel and recyclables were products of an IRRC. Compost process is 60 days after putting into pits. Waste has been gathering into a pit until it fills in form of piles. After 45 days it transfers into maturing box for 15 days. Final product stain and pack for marketing.

Importance of Success Model by Mr. Arif Hassan (OPP)

A renowned philanthropist from OPP & URC, Mr. Arif Hassan discussed the importance of the success model. Before discussing his topic, he hailed efforts carried out by Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan Memorial Trust in waste management and community led sanitation.

 Solution of solid waste problems at grass root level requires activism at UC level and both of these understand this basic reality and work accordingly.

 In present era there are some of the major problems such as waste management, housing and employment. These problems are major issues to be taken care of by everyone especially the local government. Unplanned urbanization has resulted capturing of land especially that land which was a natural flow of rain and flood water. The construction of houses narrowed the passage of water and disposal of waste also created hindrance for water for example in Karachi all these drain contains toxic waste and their water is discharged in sea where the marine life is affected.  That area is also being used as residential one and it brings more risk for the population and environment. State of affairs alternative steps where resources from everything must be generated and IRRC can be a development product which can bring basic changes. But for having IRRC as development product, proper planning and assessment is basic and none of the aspects must be ignored as the failure of any program is caused by non-application of proper strategy.

Referring to success of waste management through IRRC, shared that there can be three models in this regard. They are:-

  1. Making it a business
  2. Making it a cooperative
  3. UC take responsibility to execute it

These models can be helpful greatly in achieving the goal of waste management and saving precious resources.

Feedback by the participants

The participants took keen interest in this session and shared their comments as well. One of the participants asked about the level of success of the IRRC and Mr. Arif Hassan responded that the success can be possible only after the thorough analysis of the problem, calculation of waste generation, access to financial and technical resources.

While responding to a question he shared that currently government has hired private companies to collect waste and dispose it at landfill sites out of cities but that is much expensive. Though the private companies are collecting waste but their management of waste is limited to transportation of waste to the landfill which is only a partial solution and it was already being done by the municipalities in much cost effective manner.

IRRC Design & Budget Sheraz Shah (UN Habitat)

 

Sheraz Shah technical expert from UNHABITAT shares details information on IRRC design, structure and budgeting along with hurdles face by them during the construction of IRRC. For IRRC 800Sq feet land was required for 5 tons capacity IRRC. According to waste concern Dhaka model and technical inputs of UN Habitat & UNESCAP 15-20000$ per ton construction cost is require. Soil testing and EIA is also requiring for IRRC construction. Shared the process how they engage main stockholders through dialogue process and finally construct IRRC. The technical process of IRRC in form of power point presentation was also shared with participants. It was not easy to develop an IRRC in overnight. It takes long and time taking efforts. It is also not happen by one person a whole team and stakeholders worked on it. Basic funding was provided by the UNESCAP and UN Habitat provides the technical assistance in this regard. IRRC requirement of land and finance were discussed per ton.

IRRC can replicate into different cities. “Budget and total cost of IRRC can be reducing while using local materials and labor.” It would replicate with collaboration of municipality and district government. Without involvement of the Govt and local tears it cannot successful. Community awareness and facilitation is also needed for the successful implementation of the IRRC.

Baseline & Business Survey by Sadia Kirmani & Sumaira Gul

A detail baseline survey and business plan was presented by Ms. Sadia Kirmani and Ms. Sumaira Gul. “The initial survey must be conducted in 100 houses chosen on random basis”. The waste was collected on daily bases for 6 days; Make it sure that there is no Sunday in your chosen days (means no off day). The waste should be collected on daily bases and from same house every time every day. When the waste is collected weigh the total waste and then segregate the waste in organic, inorganic and waste material. Weights each recyclable item segregated and note down as well reject waste.

Survey data of 170 households was also shared. Among the total waste 66% was organic. Briefed that how to conduct the baseline survey into their target areas.

 The baseline survey is not only for the houses but also for the municipality, hospitals and other relevant department just to understand the situation of the overall area. A questionnaire (format) was shared to participant having different questions, which should be answered during survey. At the end question of format about budget was discusses; how much TMA and municipality provide budget for sweeping, for waste collection, for landfilling and disposal and for other, so that it can understand how much your municipality give budget to the waste management; this is needed only to compare how much cost effect it will be if we want to establish an IRRC.

The business plan was shared “IRRC is a successful social enterprisers” because it not only help the humanity but also earn money too. Everyone is doing business but doing business with helping humanity is something worth. Therefore it needs to do planning for all our activities, especially for building an IRRC. For business plan it is must to have a baseline survey first, to do the cost and benefit analysis. To mobilize the TMA to know the nature of the waste generated in the area; on these bases an IRRC would build. For an IRRC need at least 2500-3000 houses. It is also important to understand about the time frame, in how much time achieve the targeted number of houses. Collection analysis must be done to understand how and from where the waste should be collected.

 Capacity of IRRC is also part of business plan. It promotes Source Separation of waste and takes care of organic & inorganic waste therefore it produces good quality compost.

IRRC Visit

 

IRRC visit was organized to enable participants watch and compare with what they have learned and observe the real situation likely to be met in their work settings.

The participants were welcomed by Mr. Hamidullah. The participants were briefed about the establishment, functions, usefulness and challenges regarding IRRC. The participants took keen interest in visiting all the departments of the IRRC and asked different questions.

Briefed the map of JKCHS and served households. Participants observed the waste collection, segregation, compost process and staining as well. Briefed on Kitchen gardening, poultry farming, rain water harvesting and bio gas.

  • IRRC promotes door to door collection of waste
  • Producing Compost and Improving Recycling
  • Reducing Green House Gas
  • Reducing Cost of SWM
  • Creating Jobs for the Poor
  • Improving Health and Environment
  • Improving Soil Condition

Feedback by the participants

Following are some of the questions and their answers

One of the participants asked about the cost of building and IRRC. it can vary as it depends on the volume of waste and IRRC going to recycle. The current IRRC has been built as per standards set by UN sector organization but the cost can be reduced in other areas adopting local realities and keeping in view the volume of waste it is going to recycle. Upon a question regarding the quality and marketing possibilities of compost, the scope in market is there for compost but first of all it needs to be tested properly and results would be shared with customers such as farmers and nursery owners. Upon a question about waste collection mechanism and segregation explain that the respective staff collects waste from every household in the vicinity, the staff is properly trained and sensitized, equipped with safety measures as well. The waste is collected and brought to IRRC where it is segregated and recyclable inorganic articles are taken by a  scrap dealer whereas the organic  waste is placed in proper places where its temperature, air and moisture level is checked regularly. It takes normally 45-60 days in become a proper compost where it is weighed and packed to be sold in the market. He shared that leachate is also stored and it will also be sold to be used for agriculture and nurseries.

Responding to a question about income and expenditure of IRRC he said that it depends on its capacity of waste to be recycled as it will require the staff accordingly as well. He responded to another question that so far IRRC is self-sustained and staff of 15 members is running it and earning from this. Also he shared that plans like kitchen gardening and biogas are under process which will add in effectiveness and income from the IRRC as well.

Day Three

Recap of the second day

Second Day recap was taken place and participants shared the following:

  • The participants shared about success models shared by Mr. Arif Hassan and liked  all the three models he shared as all are important as per their related benefits.
  • Most of the participants shared about IRRC visit and the need to replicate it in different areas with modifications as per ground realities.
  • Some participants stressed to look for ways to reduce the cost of the IRRC whereas one of the participants shared to identify and build linkages with such donor organizations that can join hands in establishing IRRC in other areas.

Why IRRC by Mr. Fazal Noor

An architect by profession, Mr. Fazal Noor explained the rationale of Integrated Resource Recovery Center (IRRC). He said that IRRC concept is based on recovery of resources from waste, and the process of recovery integrates different aspects of waste recycling including collection, mobilization, waste transport, sorting, and most importantly giving dignity to the waste collectors.

He greeted the participants and acknowledged their commitments to cleanliness and waste recycling. He said that solid waste disposal and recycling is responsibility of both Government and citizens. The profit is recycling has also attracted the private sector. Open dumping of waste spreads diseases and industrially produced waste are harmful for the environment. Burning of wastes create pollution and spreads the burnt wastes in the area. Wastes spread and scattered in the area is unhygienic and unpleasant.

He shared that IRRC was started in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where large scale urbanization and migration of rural population to the  capital city increased the generation of solid waste and posed  a major problem for the local government. He gave a brief history of development of IRRC in Bangladesh and its later replication in south East Asian cities, and the UN Program for replicating the project in Pakistan. Knowing the history is necessary for developing clarity and understanding the concept. Conceptual clarity will help in goal setting and planning viable scale of operation. It is also necessary to maintain quality standards for processing and recycling, otherwise the operation and the recycled waste would become health and environmental hazard, and make the operation

He gave examples of IRRC in Bangladesh and at G-15 Islamabad. Through these examples, he showed how alternative solutions can be developed to reduce cost, improve the design and make the solution socially acceptable and suitable to local needs. He pointed out that survey is t important to determine the scale, size and design and to mobilize people and resources.

Mr. Noor shared that to mobilize resources and increase the effectiveness and make the scale viable  following 3 methods can be adopted.

  • Dealing it as a business
  • Linking it with environment and climate change
  • Social model linking it with health, hygiene, WASH etc.

While talking about investment, he said hardly any donor will grant resources for such initiative as a donation or development grant but a loan can be negotiated with the donor but in this case the management and functioning of the IRRC must be affective to pay the loan back as well.

Feedback by the participants

Before this session the participants had visited IRRC, therefore when Mr. Fazal Noor discussed this topic, the participants showed keen interest and also talked about risks and opportunities.  Main risks pointed out by the  participants included managements and marketing challenges, health and environmental issues, possibilities of air and water pollution Mr. Fazal Noor responded that the first IRRC is always a learning experience and should be taken as pilot.  Without making an IRRC learning is theoretical. Making and operating an IRRC builds people and Government’s confidence and attract private sector. Moreover the motivation of the process and the resulting benefits will help to spread the idea and attract investments and resources for scaling up.

Plan of Action Preparation by Mr. Hamidullah

This session was mainly a group work and participants from every area were asked to prepare the action plan. The guidelines were provided and following key points were focused:-

  • Develop plan of Action for city
  • Baseline survey
  • Business plan
  • Funds arrangement
  • IRRC design
  • Land
  • Training (community activists ,councillor ,TMA staff)

The plan of action also includes business plan preparation and for this purpose following guidelines are to be focused:-

Business Plan

  • Solid Waste generation and composition study
  • Sample area
  • Collection analysis
  • Examine existing waste management and recycling system
  • Formal collection system
  • Informal collection system
  • Institutional capacity
  • Marketing compost

Following table was followed by the participants to formulate the plan of action.

 

Activity April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Baseline                  
Business plan                  
Funds Arrangement                  
IRRC Design                  
Land                  
Training                  
Forum                  

Plan of Action Presentation

In each training Plan of Action was focused. During training each city representative develop the plan of action for their city. In this plan of Action they schedule when they conduct baseline survey and who will develop the business plan. Which stakeholder would responsible for funds arrangements?  Which one is responsible for IRRC design and land availability? Who and when training would organize. Who will organize the city forum and when? Participants plan and schedule all these for implementation.

Concluding Comments about Plan of Action 

Mr. Edwin Samson, Mr. Fazil, Mr. Fazal Noor and Mr. Abdul Rasheed shared the following points:-

  • The participants have understood the basic idea of IRRC and can make a plan by their own.
  • The plan of action is a commitment to tackle the issue in best possible way.
  • It shows that the participants are serious to do something in this regard.
  • The participants were tricked by this table of plan of action and every group tried to follow the actions according to the sequence of the months whereas some activities were needed to be conducted in initial stages whereas it was placed in later stages, this makes the plan bit misappropriate.
  • It should be seen as a social entrepreneurship and its impact is manifold and for the whole world as well if every country and area starts contributing to waste management, the pollution and temperature of the earth can be reduced

Post Evaluation

Post evaluation has been taken at the end of training

  1. The participants were aware of the issues and threats of solid waste and its open dumping or disposal in drains.
  2. The participants were aware that waste is not trash and useless but it can be a resource as well.
  3. The participants were aware of different models in SWM and also the use of compost for the better agriculture yield.

Conclusion

AHKMT team and guests thanked all the participants, their respective organizations, resource persons and staff of AHKMT for active participation in the training and hoped that it will be a milestone for reducing harmful effects of waste from our society and also generation resources as well. He assured the cooperation during post training initiatives and offered technical and moral support for the participants in related issues when and where required. It was requested to the participants to be in touch and inform us in case of any development in this regard and would be happy to learn from the experiences of the participants in their respective areas.

Guests of Trainings

During all trainings different guests were joining. They all are very reputable and concerned.

  • In first training Mr. Edwin Samson board member AHKMT was specially guest of the closing ceremony. Ms. Jannat from UN Habitat were apart of closing ceremony. She briefly describes the IRRC overall objective and methodology. She also offers the technical services to the participants for replication of IRRC locally.
  • In Second training Mr. Fazil Country Head Community World Services Asia close the ceremony. He shared their experience and interest regarding Solid Waste Management and disposal.
  • In third training Mr. Fazal Noor conclude the training. He came from Karachi just to attend the training. He participates in the training also conduct the session on IRRC as well.
  • On fourth training Ms. Farzana from EPA and Mr. Latif Qureshi were invited as special guest of closing ceremony. They highlight the importance of IRRC and its impact on environment.

 

Future plan

  • AHKMT set the target to train 120 participants at this time 76 participants were trained. In coming months more training would organize to meet the set target.
  • It is part of the future plan to organize follow up visits of trained participants (City).
  • AHKMT would facilitate to the interested participants and organizations for replication of IRRC.
  • AHKMT would participate in the activities which would planned by the train partners

Follow up Visits

Follow up visit to BareKot Swat

30 April 2016

AHKMT team visited Barekot on 30 April 2016 and meet with Mr. Fazal Wadood Nazim. Follow up meeting was organized in TMA office Bare kot. Tehsil Nazam ,Tehsil Naib Nazim ,TMO and All Tehsil councilors participated in the meeting.

 TMO briefly explain on the situation of solid waste management in the area. TMA Bare kot was part of Mingora TMA in 2009 but it was established in 2010 without major funds but at this stage while arranging their own resources they have their own land for dumping sit along with other major equipment’s and vehicles.16 tons of waste is daily produce is in the area of jurisdiction, but it is difficult for to manage properly.

After the detail discussion, briefly discussed the idea and concept of e-guard, its components and focus on the mechanism of its sustainability, cost sharing and primary collection of waste. After the discussion explain about the IRRC Model, its benefits to the community, TMA and local politicians.

TMO Mr. Fazal Rabi, show his interest for visiting IRRC, G-15 Islamabad to understand the management and operational outlook of IRRC. He was also of the view that they have the land they have the team but if they found the model more sustainable we will also arranged funds with AHKMT support to construct.

Follow-up visit to Mardan

06 May 2016

AHKMT team visited District Mardan as a follow-up visit after training on Solid waste management and Integrated resources recovery center (IRRC) replication in the area.

The purpose of the visit is meeting with TMA and district administration. To pursue and the fallow –up the assigned tasks and assignments given to them in the form of Plan of Action during their 3 days training on the concept of Integrated resources recovery center (IRRC) for Solid waste management.

Mr.Mehar Ali Shah Director PDI, Mardan organized a meeting with Tehsil Nazim Mr. Ayub and TMA Mardan representatives, in which participated all Tehsil members of Mardan City, Fazal Haq College and Government College Mardan Principals along with their staff.

Mr. Hamid Ullah, give a brief on solid waste management and its adverse impacts. After that give a details brief, about exposure visit to the Mayar village adjacent to Mardan Urban.

During this meeting Tehsil Nazim, told that I and my team are really appreciated the work done by e-guard and want to replicate the IRRC Model but last month they outsource some of their services delivery including solid waste to the WSS, now it is on their disposal.

 Hamid Ullah told the participants that if the village chairman and their team of Mayar are agree we can manage their solid waste and can build a proper sustainable structure. On the other side he gives a second alternative that TMA can built IRRC in Mardan and later it should be hand over to the WSS as assert. All participants appreciated and ask for it capital and operational cost along with management, It was explained that all aspects of IRRC Management, cost and income. One of the Nazam takes keen interest and promised to mobilize resources for IRRC replication.

 

Follow-up visit to Timergara

31 May 2016

Ms.Sumaira Gul ,Mr.Hamid Ullah and Obaid Ullah visited Timergara to meet the TMA and other concerned official.

Meeting was held at the office of Tehsil Nazam Balamabat in his presence along with Naib Nazim, Village council Nazim and Ad. Assistant Commissioner. Mr. Hamid Ullah introduces the AHKMT and brief them on the concept of IRRC and its essentiality in the area.

It was suggested to start e-guard project from 500 households as a pilot in the most urban area of Balambat Tehsil and then extended to other area. Mr. Hamid Ullah extended his cooperation to the Tehsil Nazim Balambat for the establishment of e-guard as a pilot in his area of jurisdiction. He further added that this pilot needed only start up amount which can easily manage by the Tehsil Administration.

Tehsil Nazim told that he is really impressed by the IRRC Model and the approach adopted by the e-guard for the safe and proper disposal of solid waste, he further said that in the coming budget he will supposed to allocated a handsome amount for the sanitation and solid waste management because he realized that these are the issues that directly affect our lives.

Follow up meeting Fazal Haq College Mardan

04 June 2016

IRRC replication and training follow up meeting was organized with joint collaboration of PDI and Fazal Haq College. Organization president Ms. Shama Mir, Mr. Mir Ali Shah and principal of Fazal Haq College as well as some government schools principals/staff and community was participated.

First of all Mr. Riaz take the briefing on Environment degradation. He explains that degradation of environment is rapidly disturbing the atmosphere. He also shares the reasons and main causes.

After that Ms. Sumaira Gul share the Global Overview of waste. She discusses waste composition, types and problems. She shares the waste impacts and negative effects on environment as well as greenhouse gasses emissions.

Other part of the presentation was IRRC and its importance. IRRC is success model of waste. It is most important for small cities. Some of the participants raise the questions which were addressed.

After that a meeting was organized with Mr. Riaz basic purpose of the meeting was to follow up the training.Mr. Riaz is willing to develop 01 tons model IRRC in Fazal Haq college they have land in college as well garden waste is also available. They also have college staff colony and 05 hostels.

For 01 tons IRRC 15-20 lac rupees are require for this they are searching a private investor. It is decided that after eid a follow up meeting would organize. In this meeting interested investors would invite. Tehsil Nazim and TMA would also coordinate for participation in meeting. IRRC could replicate into Shikh Maltoon Town if it would convenient

 

Follow up meeting in Fateh Jung for IRRC replication

06 June 2016

During the training of Punjab small cities one of the neighboring District Attock tehsil Fateh jung was also participated. TOI&S from TMA and elected local bodies members were join training. At the end of training they had develop plan of action and schedule the different activities.

After 02 weeks of training AHKMT team visited the city as well visit the selected site for IRRC. Also visit the selected area for baseline study of 100 households

On the celebration of world environment day 05 June and introductory session was organized. TMA staff, LHW’s health department, field mobilizers and community was invited in session. Ceremony was started according to the agenda.

Tehsil Municipal Officer Khan Badshah, TO Chauhdary Younus, elected local body members Malik Safeer & Muhammad Bashir, Sumaira Gul from AHKMT were invited on stage.

Mr. Muhammad Bashir shares the solid waste situation and related problems in city. He also introduce IRRC as best model for waste disposal.

After that TOI&S Ch. Younus explain the challenges faced by TMA. He share that Fatehjung has 40,000 populations.

  • Urban population is growing gradually and city area is rapidly expanding.
  • This change and upgrade the living standards of community.
  • Waste generation is increased
  • Fateh jung is generated 16 tons waste on daily bases
  • TMA is collected almost 60-70%
  • There is no landfill for dumping of waste
  • 50 Kanal land is require for landfilling
  • For disposal of waste expanses has been increase
  • We want IRRC develop for proper disposal of waste
  • It is also discussed to take some charges of Waste management from community. It helps to meet IRRC expanses
  • He also discussed Solid Waste Management importance
  • He also requested to their staff for cooperation in awareness of community

Sumaira Gul from AHKMT takes briefing on IRRC as well current waste situation in Pakistan. She share that 06 cities of Punjab has been privatized by the international companies for waste collection. It is almost 3 times expansive rather than local set up.

  • In small cities municipalities have facing the lack of land fill sites.
  • Waste not disposing is impacting environment badly. It also effect the negative impacts on human life
  • Importance and benefits of waste disposal were shared.
  • For IRRC development role of TMA, elected local bodies and community were shared.
  • It was requested that alone TMA cannot do anything it is important that community play their role it make municipality more strengthen

After that TMO Khan Badshah shared the following points

  • Situation of waste in Fateh jung
  • New system of waste companies in mega cities
  • Harmful effects due to lack of proper system in small cities
  • Waste negative impacts on our lives and environment
  • Positive impacts of waste proper disposal
  • Need and importance of IRRC
  • Role of TMA
  • Benefits to staff
  • Role of community and benefits
  • Benefits to Health and other departments

Stakeholders Follow up and future planning meeting

16 June 2016

After training for replication of IRRC through integrated waste management all the stakeholders and relevant departments’ representatives were invited. They all play the vital role during training or part of the IRRC. They are interested to replicate the IRRC into other cities.

Following institutes or organizations were invited

  • UN Habitat
  • Arid Agriculture University
  • NUST University
  • NCRD
  • EPA
  • CDA
  • Social Welfare department
  • Housing Societies
  • Media representatives

Formal discussion was started after Iftar and discusses one point agenda. Main discussion point is how to replicate IRRC and who can play role. After the achieving of 85% successful training which kind of steps would take place for further process.

Following points were decided after discussion.

  • After the Eid each of the meeting participants would host the meeting in their office for further implementation
  • Waste Management Pressure group which was suggested during training of Hazara division would implement practically. Therefore TOR’s would develop
  • It was decided that core group would
  • This group would also meet with UN ESCAP representative they would visit Pakistan in August/ September. They would take decisions on expected IRRC’s into different cities
  • There are vital chances of IRRC replication in Fatehjung and Muzafferabad. If UN Habitat and Arid Agriculture University technically support them process would start there.
  • Regarding Bio gas plant Mr. Ghulam Jillani and Mr. Zeeshan would jointly visit IRRC and operate the plant
  • Programs on integrated waste management would start on FM-99 and Radio Pakistan
  • EPA also agreed to suggest the societies about IRRC
  • Imran Shami from Plan International also shows the interest to visit IRRC with their team. They would suggest replicating into their project areas
  • It was decided that success model would replicate through involvement of government, CSO’s or donors if require

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